Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (PD)
Last update 7/7/2013
Department of Social Psychology, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan
My research has focused on understanding the adaptive value of culture-specific behaviors. The research projects I have undertaken are detailed below.
- Culture-specific Behavior as Adaptive Strategy: It is reasonable to hypothesize that culture-specific behaviors have adaptive value for those living in societies. In collectivist societies, (e.g., Japan) in which groups are typically closed to outsiders, those who are excluded from their groups have difficulty finding alternative groups that will accept them. The cost of being excluded, therefore, is much higher in collectivistic societies than in individualistic societies (e.g., the USA) in which individuals can more easily replace lost relationships. Indeed, we have already demonstrated that some culture-specific behaviors, often called “interdependent” behaviors in cultural psychology, are highly ecological fit in terms of minimizing the risk of accruing a bad reputation (Hashimoto, et al., 2011; Yamagishi, et al., 2008; 2012).
- Two Distinct Aspects of “Interdependence”: Harmony seeking and rejection avoidance: From the adaptationist perspective, social order in collectivistic societies is thought to be maintained through mutual monitoring and threats of exclusion from social relations. In such societies, the avoidance of being disliked and excluded by close relatives is critical for survival and success. In contrast, in individualistic societies in which social order depends less on mutual monitoring and more on a democratic legal system, the need to avoid being disliked by close relatives is weaker. In light of these differences in the mechanism of maintaining social order, cultural differences in the levels of rejection avoidance, but not in the levels of harmony seeking, between collectivistic and individualistic societies can be predicted. We are now examining this assumption, and this assumption has been supported by a study comparing people from Japan and the USA (Hashimoto & Yamagishi, 2013).
- Dual Roles of Culturally Shared Beliefs: Culturally shared beliefs play dual roles in affecting people’s behavior; i.e., shared beliefs create culturally installed goals and affect the expected responses of others. The former has been a focus of the standard approaches to culture in psychology. For example, cultural psychologists have successfully delineated how culturally shared beliefs that promote independence or interdependence affect people’s perceptions or behavior. The success of these studies, however, seems to have had the unintended effect of restricting the use of other approaches to analyze how culturally shared beliefs shape the way that people construct reality. I am now undertaking research that focuses on the latter, that is, the expected responses of others. Specifically, I have shown that Japanese people revealed their preference for independence over interdependence, while they expected that others would prefer interdependence to independence (Hashimoto, 2011; 2012). We have also shown that American and Japanese participants rated the independent target as more desirable than the interdependent target. However, Japanese participants expected that others would regard the interdependent target more positively than the independent target. Our results suggest that the culturally shared Japanese beliefs that interdependent persons receive more positive evaluations than independent persons creates incentives for Japanese people to behave interdependently regardless of their personal preferences (Hashimoto & Yamagishi, submitted)
Keyword: social interaction, social niche construction, adaptation
2012 Hokkaido University, Behavioral Science, Ph.D.
2009 Hokkaido University, Behavioral Science, M.A.
2007 Hokkaido University, Behavioral Science, B.A.
2009-2012 Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (DC1)
2012-present Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (PD)
1. Misumi Award, Asian Association of Social Psychology and Japanese Group Dynamics Association, 2013
2. Incentive Award, Hokkaido Psychological Society, 2012
3. Distinguished Paper Award, Japanese Group Dynamics Association, 2011
4. Distinguished Presentation Award, Japanese Group Dynamics Association, 2011
5. Graduate Student Poster Award Runner-up, Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 2011
6. Distinguished Presentation Award, Japanese Group Dynamics Association, 2009
7. The Best-Poster Award, International Congress of the International Association for cross-cultural psychology, 2008
8. Young Researcher's Scholarship, Japanese Society of Social Psychology, 2008
9. Distinguished Presentation Award, Japanese Group Dynamics Association, 2007
Selected Recent Papers (Journal Articles):
1. Hashimoto, H., & Yamagishi, T. (2013). Two Faces of Interdependence: Harmony Seeking and Rejection Avoidance. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 142–151.
2. Yamagishi, T., Mifune, N., Li, Y., Shinada, M., Hashimoto, H., Horita, Y., Miura, A., Inukai, K., Tanida, S., Kiyonari, T., Takagishi, H., & Simunovic, D. (2013). Is behavioral pro-sociality game-specific? Pro-social preference and expectations of pro-sociality. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 120, 260-271.
3. Yamagishi, T., Horita, Y., Mifune, N., Hashimoto, H., Li, Y., Shinada, M., Miura, A., Inukai, K., Takagishi, H., & Simunovic, D. (2012). Rejection of Unfair Offers in the Ultimatum Game Is No Evidence of Strong Reciprocity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 20364-20368.
4. Hashimoto, H. (2012). Ideal Self and Perceived Other’s Self among Japanese and Americans. Hokkaido Journal of Psychology, 35, 1-12. (In Japanese)
5. Yamagishi, T., Hashimoto, H., Cook, K. S., Kiyonari, T., Shinada, M., Mifune, N., Inukai, K., Takagishi, H., Horita, Y., & Li, Y. (2012). Modesty in Self-Presentation: A Comparison between the U.S. and Japan. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 60-68. (*granted Misumi Award)
6. Yamagishi, T., Hashimoto, H., Li, Y., & Schug, J. (2012). Stadtluft Macht Frei (City Air Brings Freedom). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43, 38-45.
7. Hashimoto, H., Li, Y., & Yamagishi, T. (2011). Beliefs and Preferences in Cultural Agents and Cultural Game Players. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 14, 140-147.
8. Hashimoto, H. (2011). Interdependence as a Self-sustaining Set of Beliefs. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 182-193. (In Japanese). (*granted Distinguished Paper Award)
9. Mifune, N., Hashimoto, H., & Yamagishi, T. (2010). Altruism toward In-group Members as a Reputation Mechanism. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31, 109-117.
10. Takahashi, C., Yamagishi, T., & Hashimoto, H. (2009). Interdependent Self as a Form of Self-presentation in Response to a Threat of Exclusion from the Group. Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 113-120. (In Japanese)
11. Yamagishi, T., Hashimoto, H., & Joanna Schug (2008). Preferences vs. Strategies as Explanations for Culture-Specific Behavior. Psychological Science 19, 578-583. (*featured in Science Editor's Choice)